Interesting about labradors
History of Labradors
From all accounts about history of Labradors originated in Newfoundland. The name assignment may have resulted from a geographical association. The name may also be explained by the origin of the word labrador, Portuguese for laborer and the Spanish word for workmen, lavradores (Lavrador meaning labourer). A related connection could be black stone labradorit or the village in northern Portugal called Castro Laboreiro where the dogs that guard livestock bear a striking resemblance to Labrador Retrievers.
There is a bit of mystery about the ancestors of the Labrador, appropriate perhaps given the amazing versatility of the breed.The black St. Hubert's hound from France, working water dogs from Portugal, old European pointer breeds and dogs belonging to the native Indians have all been suggested as possible predecessors.
Bjarni Herjolfssom and Leif Ericson, about 986 -1001 AD was the first Europeans to sight Newfoundland and Labrador. The island of Newfoundland (originally called Terra Nova) was most likely first named by the Italian John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) in 1497. The elusive North West Passage attracted many explorers, adventurers and thousands of fishermen and whalers from England, Portugal, and the Basque regions of Spain and France along the Labrador coast.
Newfoundland was settled by English fisherman as early as the 1500's and the St. John's dogs seemed to develop along with the fishing occupation. The fishermen used dogs to retrieve fish that fell off hooks and to help haul in swimming lines or fishing nets. These dogs needed to be eager to please, strong swimmers and small enough to haul in and out of the two man "Dory" type boats. The St. John's dogs were considered "workaholics" and enjoyed the retrieving tasks given in the fishing environment.He will break ice to retrieve birds only to return and wait for the next one to come down. They needed to have short, water repellent dense coats that could withstand very cold water and wouldn't ball up with ice or bring excess water onboard.It was said that the dogs would work long hours with the fisherman in the cold waters, then be brought home to play with the fisherman's children. Onshore, as temporary settlements gave way to more permanent ones, a retrieving dog would have been a very useful hunting companion.
The St. John's area of Newfoundland was settled predominantly by Englishmen who brought these working dogs to England through Poole Harbor, Dorset, the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade. The wonderful temperament of the Labrador Retriever is documented back to its early days in England and has made them ideal family pets as well as accomplished sporting dogs. These St. John's dogs became the most prized sporting dogs for the gentry who could afford to maintain kennels for controlled breeding. Certainly some mixture of these or others is logical since tradesmen from around the world frequented Newfoundland for several centuries, plenty of time to develop breeds with the desired working traits. Two distinctly different breeds resulted, the larger longer haired dog used for hauling that became the Newfoundland we know today and the smaller shorter coated retriever that led to our present day labradors.
Early 1800's - First St. John's dogs arrived in England, some imported by the 2nd Earl of Malmesbury to Heron (Hurn) Court, near Poole.
1814 - First written reference to the Labrador in "Instructions to Young Sportsmen…" by Colonel Peter Hawker who observed them on Newfoundland.
1823 - Sporting artist Edward Landseer painted a black dog with white markings-entitled "Cora. A Labrador Bitch"
1835 - The 5th Duke of Buccleuch (1806-1884) started his kennel in Scotland about 1835 independently from Malmesbury. The dog was first documented under the name Labrador in 1839. The Duke's brother, Lord John Scott also started importing the St. John's dogs from Newfoundland. A number of the dogs that the brothers imported were named Jock, Nell (1843) and Brandy. Brandy earned his name when he was being transported across the Atlantic ocean. He went overboard into rough water to fetch the cap of one of the crew. It took them 2 hours before they could pick up the dog and he was so exhausted they revived him with Brandy. The earliest photograph of a Labrador Retriever was of the Duke's dog named Nell.
By the 1880's nearly all the true Labrador (St. John's dog) lines had died out in England. A fortuitous meeting of the third Earl of Malmesbury (at age 75) with the sixth Duke of Buccleuch (1831-1914) and twelfth Duke of Home (1834-1918) saved Labs from extinction. Buccleuch and Home were visiting a sick Aunt and decided to participate in a waterfowl shoot on the South Coast. There the two men were impressed by what Malmesbury's dogs were capable of doing. These were the same bloodlines as their father's kennels. Malmesbury reported that he had keep the blood lines pure as he could with the imported dogs from Newfoundland. Malmesbury gave them some of his dogs to carry on the breeding program. The dogs were Ned (born 1882) and Avon (born 1885).
Many say that these two dogs are the ancestor of all British Labs. Buccleuch Avon is said to have sired 'liver-coloured' pups. This would be the ancestor of most American Field Champion chocolate line or chocolate gene carriers line.
In 1887 the Earl of Malmesbury first coined the name Labrador in a letter he wrote referring the them as his Labrador Dogs. "We always call mine Labrador dogs and I have kept the breed as pure as I could from the first I had from Poole… known by their having a close coat which turns the water off like oil and, above all, a tail like an otter." Richard Wolters in his book the "Labrador Retriever" writes that the 19th century Brits lumped that area together as the same land mass, so it could have referred to dogs from that area.
The Labrador had so many excellent qualities that it had been used to breed into other "Retrievers". In the late 18th and early 19th Century (before any Kennel Club registration) some breeders tried to interbreed the hunting abilities of different retrieving dogs that met their liking. Other retrievers of the time included curly coats, flat coats and a now extinct Norfolk Retriever. It was said that often the St. John's genes were dominant and the crosses tended to still carry the looks and personality. Eventually the separate breeds became fixed and separated in the Kennel Club registration.
In 1892 two 'liver color' Labradors were born at Buccleuch's kennel. (Richard Wolthers, The Labrador Retriever).
1899 - First yellow Lab on record, Ben of Hyde born at kennel of Major C.J. Radclyffe.
1903 - Labradors recognized by the kennel club in England
Early 20th Century - Scottish style shooting and the prestige of bringing over a Scottish gamekeeper led to the importing of Labs to America.
1916 - the Labrador Club was formed in England with support from Lord Knutsford (Munden Kennel line) and Lady Lorna, Countess Howe (Banchory Labradors). Some chocolate labs are said to trace back to FC Banchory Night Light from the Banchory Kennel. He was a black dog born in 1932 in England. Night Light comes from the line of Dual Ch. Banchory Bolo (1915) who appears to be a carrier of the chocolate gene from Buccleuch Avon. Banchory Bolo was also known for carrying a trait of white hairs under the feet (Bolo pads). Labrador Club formed in England instrumental in this were Lord Knutsford (Munden Kennel line) and Lady Lorna, Countess Howe (Banchory Labradors).
1917 - First Labs registered in the American Kennel Club.
By the 1930's the St. John's dog was rare in Newfoundland. The 6th Duke of Buccleuch was finally able to import a few more dogs between 1933-1934 to continue the line.
1931 - The Labrador Retriever Club incorporated in the U.S. and the first American field trial for Labs held at the Glenmere Court Estate in Chester, NY.
1933 - First American specialty for Labs held in NYC and judged by Mrs. Marshall Field.
Late 1930's - Chocolates became known in 2 British kennels, Tibshelfs and Cookridge.
1938 - First dog to appear on the cover of Life Magazine - "Blind of Arden", a black Lab belonging to W. Averell Harriman. At 4 years of age he won the top US Retriever stake that year.
1941 - National Retriever Club established in the U.S.
Late 1940's and 1950's - The two World Wars greatly diminished the breed in numbers (as it did many others). After the second World War saw the rise of the Labrador Retriever in the United States, where Britain's Sandylands kennel through imports going back to Eng CH Sandyland's Mark influenced the shape and direction the show lines took in this country. Other influential dogs include American Dual CH Shed of Arden, a grandson of English Dual CH Banchory Bolo, especially evident in field trial lines.
1971 - The main center of retriever breeding in Russia is Russian Retriever Club (RRC). Our club was established in 1971. All these years RRC does all possible to make retrievers popular in Russia.
History of Retrievers in Russia. Olga Teslenko, Konsultant of RRC
So first Labradors have appeared in the USSR in the end of 60 - beginning of 70-s of XX century. Today such names as FISHDUCK'S KENNEBAGO RAIDER (USA), RED STAR (Canada), SUSANNE OF HAMPSHIRE (UK), BRUTUS FEROKIUS (India), PINKY (UK) have become history - since these dogs history of Labradors in Russia has begun.
A Labrador by any other name would be as sweet…
Some of the many names used over the centuries to refer to the lab and its ancestors:
Strongly built, short-coupled, very active; broad in skull; broad and deep through chest and ribs; broad and strong over loins and hindquarters.
The PRIZE-WINNER of the WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP - 06 - 08, the VICE-CHAMPION of the Europe, Qualification on Crafts, CH RUSSIA, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Finland. INTER CH, MULTI Champion, Grandee the Champion of Russia, the Champion of National Club.
Head and Skull
Field Trial Labs
Developing the perfect hunting Lab became such an event that a splinter group took this to the next level. They developed standards where the Labs were graded according to their performance against other Labs, instead of against a set standard. This heightened the competition. As a result, breeders placed more emphasis on energy and intelligence, and usually less on looks. These Labs became long legged, hyper, and smart enough to play a good game of chess. Heads and tails became a bit narrower. Today, these Labs may climb the fence and take a 30 mile jog as a warm up. They are fantastic, but sometimes a bit too energetic for the family situation. Today these Labs are usually advertised as "Champion".
Another group of individuals became interested in the looks of the Lab, and set forth to develop the perfect dog. Tail and ear lengths, poundage, size, and other physical aspects weighed more heavily than Hunt or Field Trial requirements. Generally speaking, these Labs developed stocky bodies, shorter legs, and mammoth heads. They are paraded in Show events, and sometimes end up at the Westminster. Intelligence and temperament can sometimes take a backseat to looks, though this is not true for all Show Labs.
Lab hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter -like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. The tail acts as a rudder for changing directions. Reflecting their retrieving bloodlines, almost every Lab loves playing in water or swimming. It is believed by Darwinists that Labradors derived from the Dolphin many years ago. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming. The structure hair of the Labrador Retriever's is unique. When retrieving in the countryside, Labradors have to negotiate bushes and thickets that can cut them. Their dense fur is a great help in preventing lesions.
Whatever its function, the Labrador always commits 110% of its powers. The Labrador is a disaster dog that works itself to exhaustion to rescue people all over the world. Labradors trained to find explosives and drugs are able to distinguish 500,000 different odors. The average human recognizes around 4000.
Labradors are a well-balanced and remarkably versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule they are not excessively prone to territorialism, pining, insecurity, aggression, destructiveness, hypersensitivity, or other difficult traits which manifest in a variety of breeds, and as the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers . In its work as a retriever, the Labrador has to see exactly where a bird falls. In fact it is able to memorize where up to 10 birds fall to earth at any one time. As an extension of this, they instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness. Its size, endurance, character, intelligence and stability make it the ideal guide dog. It also has a proven track record as an assistance dog for people with motor disabilities. The versatility and good-natured temperament of Labrador dogs mean they can adapt to any situation.They are easily trained and are a very obedient breed. They are loyal companions that share the love you give to them. They are very friendly dogs and are great with children.
A probable remnant passed down by its Nordic ancestors, who needed to take in a lot of calories so they could safely enter the icy waters of the Atlantic, the Labrador's appetite is legendary. The tasks entrusted to guide dogs for the blind and assistance dogs for the disabled, and especially their sense of duty, mean they are not always able to expend the energy their enthusiastic temperament demands. A sedentary way of life combined with a natural fondness for food can so easily result in excess weight
Labrador life expectancy is generally 12 to 13 years, and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Common Lab health issues are:
Labradors are energetic, outgoing dogs. Their coats are short and smooth, and can be black, yellow, or brown (called "chocolate") in color, in that order of frequency. Puppies of all colors can potentially occur in the same litter . The color is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all. A dog with the recessive e allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus. Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's coloration, which in yellow labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Yellow labs can have black or pink noses; chocolate and black labs's noses match the coat color. A very light color sometimes called 'silver' is not officially recognized, but is sought by some owners and therefore unusually light colored yellow and chocolate labs may be described this way by unscrupulous breeders.
As with some other breeds, the English and the American lines differ slightly. Labs are bred in England as a medium size dog, shorter and stockier with fuller faces than their American counterparts which are bred as a larger dog. No distinction is made by the AKC, but the two classifications come from different breeding. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.
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