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Interesting about labradors

Labrador Retrievers

History of Labradors

From all accounts about history of Labradors originated in Newfoundland. The name assignment may have resulted from a geographical association. The name may also be explained by the origin of the word labrador, Portuguese for laborer and the Spanish word for workmen, lavradores (Lavrador meaning labourer). A related connection could be black stone labradorit or the village in northern Portugal called Castro Laboreiro where the dogs that guard livestock bear a striking resemblance to Labrador Retrievers.

Labrador Retrievers Labrador Retrievers

There is a bit of mystery about the ancestors of the Labrador, appropriate perhaps given the amazing versatility of the breed.The black St. Hubert's hound from France, working water dogs from Portugal, old European pointer breeds and dogs belonging to the native Indians have all been suggested as possible predecessors.

Bjarni Herjolfssom and Leif Ericson, about 986 -1001 AD was the first Europeans to sight Newfoundland and Labrador. The island of Newfoundland (originally called Terra Nova) was most likely first named by the Italian John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) in 1497. The elusive North West Passage attracted many explorers, adventurers and thousands of fishermen and whalers from England, Portugal, and the Basque regions of Spain and France along the Labrador coast.

Labrador Retrievers Labrador Retrievers

Newfoundland was settled by English fisherman as early as the 1500's and the St. John's dogs seemed to develop along with the fishing occupation. The fishermen used dogs to retrieve fish that fell off hooks and to help haul in swimming lines or fishing nets. These dogs needed to be eager to please, strong swimmers and small enough to haul in and out of the two man "Dory" type boats. The St. John's dogs were considered "workaholics" and enjoyed the retrieving tasks given in the fishing environment.He will break ice to retrieve birds only to return and wait for the next one to come down. They needed to have short, water repellent dense coats that could withstand very cold water and wouldn't ball up with ice or bring excess water onboard.It was said that the dogs would work long hours with the fisherman in the cold waters, then be brought home to play with the fisherman's children. Onshore, as temporary settlements gave way to more permanent ones, a retrieving dog would have been a very useful hunting companion.

Labrador Retrievers Labrador Retrievers

The St. John's area of Newfoundland was settled predominantly by Englishmen who brought these working dogs to England through Poole Harbor, Dorset, the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade. The wonderful temperament of the Labrador Retriever is documented back to its early days in England and has made them ideal family pets as well as accomplished sporting dogs. These St. John's dogs became the most prized sporting dogs for the gentry who could afford to maintain kennels for controlled breeding. Certainly some mixture of these or others is logical since tradesmen from around the world frequented Newfoundland for several centuries, plenty of time to develop breeds with the desired working traits. Two distinctly different breeds resulted, the larger longer haired dog used for hauling that became the Newfoundland we know today and the smaller shorter coated retriever that led to our present day labradors.

A St.John's Labrador and The Water Dog A St.John's Labrador and The Water Dog A St.John's Labrador and The Water Dog
A St.John's Labrador and The Water Dog, 1879 & Retriever, 1864.

Early 1800's - First St. John's dogs arrived in England, some imported by the 2nd Earl of Malmesbury to Heron (Hurn) Court, near Poole.

Labrador Retrievers. Treble Time by John Trickett
Treble Time by John Trickett

1814 - First written reference to the Labrador in "Instructions to Young Sportsmen" by Colonel Peter Hawker who observed them on Newfoundland.

Labrador Retrievers. Home Run by Paul Doyle
Home Run by Paul Doyle

1823 - Sporting artist Edward Landseer painted a black dog with white markings-entitled "Cora. A Labrador Bitch"

Labrador Retrievers. Good Girl by Robert Metropulos Jr.
"Good Girl" by Robert Metropulos Jr.

1835 - The 5th Duke of Buccleuch (1806-1884) started his kennel in Scotland about 1835 independently from Malmesbury. The dog was first documented under the name Labrador in 1839. The Duke's brother, Lord John Scott also started importing the St. John's dogs from Newfoundland. A number of the dogs that the brothers imported were named Jock, Nell (1843) and Brandy. Brandy earned his name when he was being transported across the Atlantic ocean. He went overboard into rough water to fetch the cap of one of the crew. It took them 2 hours before they could pick up the dog and he was so exhausted they revived him with Brandy. The earliest photograph of a Labrador Retriever was of the Duke's dog named Nell.

Labrador Retriever Nell
Nell, 12 years old, 1856

Labrador Retrievers

By the 1880's nearly all the true Labrador (St. John's dog) lines had died out in England. A fortuitous meeting of the third Earl of Malmesbury (at age 75) with the sixth Duke of Buccleuch (1831-1914) and twelfth Duke of Home (1834-1918) saved Labs from extinction. Buccleuch and Home were visiting a sick Aunt and decided to participate in a waterfowl shoot on the South Coast. There the two men were impressed by what Malmesbury's dogs were capable of doing. These were the same bloodlines as their father's kennels. Malmesbury reported that he had keep the blood lines pure as he could with the imported dogs from Newfoundland. Malmesbury gave them some of his dogs to carry on the breeding program. The dogs were Ned (born 1882) and Avon (born 1885).

Labrador Retriever Buccleuch Avon
Buccleuch Avon

Many say that these two dogs are the ancestor of all British Labs. Buccleuch Avon is said to have sired 'liver-coloured' pups. This would be the ancestor of most American Field Champion chocolate line or chocolate gene carriers line.

In 1887 the Earl of Malmesbury first coined the name Labrador in a letter he wrote referring the them as his Labrador Dogs. "We always call mine Labrador dogs and I have kept the breed as pure as I could from the first I had from Poole known by their having a close coat which turns the water off like oil and, above all, a tail like an otter." Richard Wolters in his book the "Labrador Retriever" writes that the 19th century Brits lumped that area together as the same land mass, so it could have referred to dogs from that area.

The Labrador had so many excellent qualities that it had been used to breed into other "Retrievers". In the late 18th and early 19th Century (before any Kennel Club registration) some breeders tried to interbreed the hunting abilities of different retrieving dogs that met their liking. Other retrievers of the time included curly coats, flat coats and a now extinct Norfolk Retriever. It was said that often the St. John's genes were dominant and the crosses tended to still carry the looks and personality. Eventually the separate breeds became fixed and separated in the Kennel Club registration.

In 1892 two 'liver color' Labradors were born at Buccleuch's kennel. (Richard Wolthers, The Labrador Retriever).

Labrador Retrievers

1899 - First yellow Lab on record, Ben of Hyde born at kennel of Major C.J. Radclyffe.

Labrador Retriever Ben Hyde
Ben Hyde

1903 - Labradors recognized by the kennel club in England

Labrador Retrievers Labrador Retrievers Labrador Retrievers
Munden Sentry
1900 Blk
FC Flapper (1st to earn FT CH in Eng)
1902 Blk (ancestor of Bracken Sweep)
NFC Peter of Faskally
1908 Blk (1st Eng Nat'l FT CH)

Early 20th Century - Scottish style shooting and the prestige of bringing over a Scottish gamekeeper led to the importing of Labs to America.

1916 - the Labrador Club was formed in England with support from Lord Knutsford (Munden Kennel line) and Lady Lorna, Countess Howe (Banchory Labradors). Some chocolate labs are said to trace back to FC Banchory Night Light from the Banchory Kennel. He was a black dog born in 1932 in England. Night Light comes from the line of Dual Ch. Banchory Bolo (1915) who appears to be a carrier of the chocolate gene from Buccleuch Avon. Banchory Bolo was also known for carrying a trait of white hairs under the feet (Bolo pads). Labrador Club formed in England instrumental in this were Lord Knutsford (Munden Kennel line) and Lady Lorna, Countess Howe (Banchory Labradors).

Labrador Retriever Banchory Bolo
English Dual CH Banchory Bolo (1915-1927) First Dual Show & Field Champion

1917 - First Labs registered in the American Kennel Club.

By the 1930's the St. John's dog was rare in Newfoundland. The 6th Duke of Buccleuch was finally able to import a few more dogs between 1933-1934 to continue the line.

1931 - The Labrador Retriever Club incorporated in the U.S. and the first American field trial for Labs held at the Glenmere Court Estate in Chester, NY.

1933 - First American specialty for Labs held in NYC and judged by Mrs. Marshall Field.

Late 1930's - Chocolates became known in 2 British kennels, Tibshelfs and Cookridge.

1938 - First dog to appear on the cover of Life Magazine - "Blind of Arden", a black Lab belonging to W. Averell Harriman. At 4 years of age he won the top US Retriever stake that year.

1941 - National Retriever Club established in the U.S.

Late 1940's and 1950's - The two World Wars greatly diminished the breed in numbers (as it did many others). After the second World War saw the rise of the Labrador Retriever in the United States, where Britain's Sandylands kennel through imports going back to Eng CH Sandyland's Mark influenced the shape and direction the show lines took in this country. Other influential dogs include American Dual CH Shed of Arden, a grandson of English Dual CH Banchory Bolo, especially evident in field trial lines.

Labrador Retriever Sandyland's Tweed of Blaircourt
Sandyland's Tweed of Blaircourt (1958)

Labrador Retriever Sandylands Tandy
UK Ch. Sandylands Tandy (1961)

Labrador Retriever Sandylands Mark
UK Sh. Ch. Sandylands Mark, 1965

Labrador Retriever Follytower Merrybrook Black Stormer
CH Follytower Merrybrook Black Stormer (1969)

Labrador Retriever Charway Ballywillwill
UK Ch. Charway Ballywillwill (1978)

Labrador Retriever Fabracken Comedy Star
UK Ch. Fabracken Comedy Star (1979)

Labrador Retriever Lindall Mastercraft
SHCH., USACH., CANCH. Lindall Mastercraft (1980)

Labrador Retriever Kupros Master Mariner
UK Ch. Kupros Master Mariner (1983)

Labrador Retriever Martin of Mardas
UK Sh. Ch. Martin of Mardas

Labrador Retriever Rocheby Royal Marine
Dutch Ch. Rocheby Royal Marine

Labrador Retrievers
Ch. Dickendall Arnold ** Ch. Dickendalls Ruffy SH ** Ch. Tabatha's Drifter At Dickendall JH

1971 - The main center of retriever breeding in Russia is Russian Retriever Club (RRC). Our club was established in 1971. All these years RRC does all possible to make retrievers popular in Russia.

Labrador Retriever Ens Lumens Frida Lady Dark
Ens Lumens Frida Lady Dark

History of Retrievers in Russia. Olga Teslenko, Konsultant of RRC

So first Labradors have appeared in the USSR in the end of 60 - beginning of 70-s of XX century. Today such names as FISHDUCK'S KENNEBAGO RAIDER (USA), RED STAR (Canada), SUSANNE OF HAMPSHIRE (UK), BRUTUS FEROKIUS (India), PINKY (UK) have become history - since these dogs history of Labradors in Russia has begun.
First Labradors were taken to our country by people, who were very far from dog shows - they worked in Ministry of Foreigh Affairs, diplomats, so it's obvious that the majority of that dogs were only pets, but not show-labradors. It was very difficult beginning of breed in Russia, during quite a lot of time we hadn't independent breed club, but were a little section at Newfoundland club. Only when in the USSR lived 50 labradors, it became possible to organize Retriever Club. Even people who liked Labradors knew about this breed practically nothing.
Every new representative of a breed who appeared in the USSR was a real gift, because it was very difficult to make any breeding, we had a great shortage of new lines. People in Russia didn't know new breed, even there wasn't clear breed standard. Now it's really strange to see photos from that times, at shows there were 5-10 labradors, not more, but in general Labrador owner of 80-s were very active, they visited all dog shows and tried to advertise new breed in the USSR. In the beginning of 80-s Labradors lived only in Moscow and in Riga.
From very first Labradors we had several litters: A1 - 06.09.1979 (FISHDUCK'S KENNEBAGO RAIDER + ZENTA), in this litter ANDRA (owner Lode M.) was born, the first Labrador in Riga; B1 - 08.04.1980 (FISHDUCK'S KENNEBAGO RAIDER + SUSANNE OF HAMPSHIRE), in this litter appeared BIMBO (owner Spiridonova V.), BAGIRA (owner Clesov A.), BRENCIS (owner Iltinya), BERI (owner Conuhov); V1 - 22.07.1980 (FISHDUCK'S KENNEBAGO RAIDER + PINKY), were borned VACSINA TUMARK KATRIN (owner Lapina E.), VIR TUMARK KATRIN (owner Blinchevski). 12.05.1982 in Moscow appeared the litter G1 (ZAMBO + SUSANNE OF HAMPSHIRE), in these litter GEISHA GREKAM STAR (owner Pushenkova S.), GOLF GREKAM STAR (owner Bakaldin Y.) were borned. In the end of 1982 in Moscow was imported the grandson of English Show Champion KINLEY SKIPER, black male BRANDY SNAP (owner Harchev V.). This male became real salvation for the breed, he had quite a nice pedigree. From BRANDY SNAP in the USSR we had 4 litters: in Moscow - litter D1 (DANIEL TUMARK BRANDY, owner Bazikin A.) from mating BRANDY SNAP + VACSINA TUMARK KATRIN; litter E1 (EVA KINLEY STAR, owner Teslenko N.; ELLE KINLEY STAR, owner Trifonova R.) from mating BRANDY SNAP + ZENTA; litter J1 (JULIETTA ROYAL PEARL, owner Kalmikova E., JAK ROYAL PEARL, JAKLIN ROYAL PEARL and JANNET ROYAL PEARL were taken to Riga) from mating BRANDY SNAP + CHRISTIE OF BLACK HOOVE (Netherlands, owner Kudinov Y.), also in Riga was born a litter from BRANDY SNAP and BERI (litter C1). In spite of knowledge lack about Labrador breeding in the world, even in that time in ouf country sometimes appeared Labradors of nice quality. In 1984 to Moscow was imported yellow male from England - BARON (owner Philippova L.), grandson of English Show Champion OTHAMCOURT SHANE OF SADDIE. BARON became a very important stud dog, he was used in breeding till 1994 and among his children there were some very successful Labradors, for example: ZORNIE TUMARK BARRY (owner Efremov A., mother - VACSINA TUMARK KATRIN), JAKBAR KORSAR (owner Hasminski M., mother - JAKLIN ROYAL PEARL), BAER TINNIE (owner Portyanaya L., mother - JAZ ERMINA), ANPRI VESTA BARI (owner Bogdanov V.) and ANPRI VAYDA BARI (owner Sirotinski M., mother - TUMARK PRETTY JERR), BANOR ZLATA NIKSI (owner Mironova E., mother - VIRGASH NORA), BARK NEVIS DAN (owner Mamaev B.) and BARK NICE DAN (owner Gorbanev D., mother DENBAG KINLIE) etc. In 1989 to Moscow from India was imported one more yellow male which had English lines - RAJ (owner Baydashin V.), this male also was used in breeding. His most famous sons were RAJEV ELLING STAR (owner Myateznaya L, mother Eva Kinley Star) and ZOR LORD BARRIE (owner Efimov E., mother Zornie Tumark Barrie), these dogs also were influential stud dogs. For example, ELLING was a father of Rus.Ch. KINEL BARBIE DAN (owner Teslenko N.), KINEL BESSIE DAN (owner Shlafshtein G.) and KINEL BEATRICHE DAN (owner Lashina N., mother DANBAG KINLIE), ELAM URMA ZAFI (owner Kudryavtzeva L., mother ZAFI AMALTEYA), ELZOR URGA BARRIE (owner Shkuratova L., mother ZORNIE TUMARK BARRIE) - exellent blood bitches. Many famous show-labradors are offsprings of ELLING's daughters. The end of 80-s to Riga was imported yellow Belgian male WEST KING. In that time main Labradors centres in the USSR were situated in Moscow and Riga , so breeders in these cities collaborated closely to each other. In 1991 to Moscow was taken son from first litter of SWEETTREES WEST KING and JAKLIN ROYAL PEARL, it was JAKVEST FRAM (owner Kasatkin), from FRAM we had several nice litters, for example his daughter FRAMIE SANDY IRAN (owner Bruevitch E., mother POM MILDA GRANT) became one of the best brood bitch of Russian Retriever Club.
Also in the beginning of 90-s to Russia were imported SILVER CLOUD'S BORG (owner Metlov P.) from India, WINOKAPAU DUKE (owner Melenkov V.) from England, OVIA VAN FRAVANCA (owner Orlova L.) from Belgium and some other new Labradors. In that time in our country was a big problem of "iron curtain" and specialist hadn't an opportunity to import to Russia Labradors with real interesting pedigree, so the majority of these Labradors had different drawbacks.
That's why in the first part of 90-s labrador's population in Russia was quite numerous (especially in Moscow), but the quality wasn't the best... The situation changed after the liberalization of external relations. Russian breeders received an opportunity to import really nice retrievers from famous kennels!
Beginning from second part of 90-s in Russia appear more and more imported Labradors from different countries.
It's very nice that in our country many retriever people are really fond of their dogs, they participate in dog's shows in Russia and abroad, in hunting tests, try to establish contacts with foreign kennels... More in detail the information...

Frederick Haycock. Black & Yellow Labrador Frederick Haycock. Black & Yellow Labrador
Frederick Haycock. Black & Yellow Labrador

A Labrador by any other name would be as sweet

Some of the many names used over the centuries to refer to the lab and its ancestors:

  • St. John's Dog
  • Lesser St. John's Dog
  • Newfoundland Dog
  • Lesser Newfoundland Dog
  • Little Newfoundlanders
  • Newfoundland Water Dog
  • Labrador Dogs
  • St. John's Labrador Dogs
  • Black Water Dog
  • Lesser Labrador
  • Smaller Labrador
  • English Retriever
  • English Labrador

Silver coins of the Central Bank of Russia. Release of 2006

General Appearance

Strongly built, short-coupled, very active; broad in skull; broad and deep through chest and ribs; broad and strong over loins and hindquarters.

Ens Lumens Arna Brown Sugar

The PRIZE-WINNER of the WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP - 06 - 08, the VICE-CHAMPION of the Europe, Qualification on Crafts, CH RUSSIA, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Finland. INTER CH, MULTI Champion, Grandee the Champion of Russia, the Champion of National Club.

Good-tempered, very agile. Excellent nose, soft mouth; keen love of water. Adaptable, devoted companion.

Intelligent, keen and biddable, with a strong will to please. Kindly nature, with no trace of aggression or undue shyness.

Head and Skull
Skull broad with defined stop; clean-cut without fleshy cheeks. Jaws of medium length, powerful not snipy. Nose wide, nostrils well developed.

Medium size, expressing intelligence and good temper; brown or hazel.

Not large or heavy, hanging close to head and set rather far back.

Jaws and teeth strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.

Clean, strong, powerful, set into well placed shoulders.

Shoulders long and sloping. Forelegs well boned and straight from elbow to ground when viewed from either front or side.

Chest of good width and depth, with well sprung barrel ribs. Level topline. Loins wide, short-coupled and strong.

Well developed, not sloping to tail; well turned stifle. Hocks well let down, cowhocks highly undesirable.

Round, compact; well arched toes and well developed pads.

Distinctive feature, very thick towards base, gradually tapering towards tip, medium length, free from feathering, but clothed thickly all round with short, thick, dense coat, thus giving rounded' appearance described as Otter' tail. May be carried gaily but should not curl over back.

Free, covering adequate ground; straight and true in front and rear.

Distinctive feature, short dense without wave or feathering, giving fairly hard feel to the touch; weather-resistant undercoat.

Wholly black, yellow or liver/chocolate. Yellows range from light cream to red fox. Small white spot on chest permissible.

Ideal height at withers: dogs: 56-57 cms (22-221/2 ins); bitches: 55-56 cms (211/2-22 ins).

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Field Trial Labs

Field Trial Labs

Developing the perfect hunting Lab became such an event that a splinter group took this to the next level. They developed standards where the Labs were graded according to their performance against other Labs, instead of against a set standard. This heightened the competition. As a result, breeders placed more emphasis on energy and intelligence, and usually less on looks. These Labs became long legged, hyper, and smart enough to play a good game of chess. Heads and tails became a bit narrower. Today, these Labs may climb the fence and take a 30 mile jog as a warm up. They are fantastic, but sometimes a bit too energetic for the family situation. Today these Labs are usually advertised as "Champion".

Show Labs

Another group of individuals became interested in the looks of the Lab, and set forth to develop the perfect dog. Tail and ear lengths, poundage, size, and other physical aspects weighed more heavily than Hunt or Field Trial requirements. Generally speaking, these Labs developed stocky bodies, shorter legs, and mammoth heads. They are paraded in Show events, and sometimes end up at the Westminster. Intelligence and temperament can sometimes take a backseat to looks, though this is not true for all Show Labs.

Labrador Retriever

Lab hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter -like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. The tail acts as a rudder for changing directions. Reflecting their retrieving bloodlines, almost every Lab loves playing in water or swimming. It is believed by Darwinists that Labradors derived from the Dolphin many years ago. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming. The structure hair of the Labrador Retriever's is unique. When retrieving in the countryside, Labradors have to negotiate bushes and thickets that can cut them. Their dense fur is a great help in preventing lesions.

Labrador Retriever Bridgecorner's Excalibur Labrador Retriever Bridgecorner's Excalibur Labrador Retriever Bridgecorner's Excalibur
Bridgecorner's Excalibur

Whatever its function, the Labrador always commits 110% of its powers. The Labrador is a disaster dog that works itself to exhaustion to rescue people all over the world. Labradors trained to find explosives and drugs are able to distinguish 500,000 different odors. The average human recognizes around 4000.

Labrador Retriever Labrador Retriever

Labradors are a well-balanced and remarkably versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule they are not excessively prone to territorialism, pining, insecurity, aggression, destructiveness, hypersensitivity, or other difficult traits which manifest in a variety of breeds, and as the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers . In its work as a retriever, the Labrador has to see exactly where a bird falls. In fact it is able to memorize where up to 10 birds fall to earth at any one time. As an extension of this, they instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness. Its size, endurance, character, intelligence and stability make it the ideal guide dog. It also has a proven track record as an assistance dog for people with motor disabilities. The versatility and good-natured temperament of Labrador dogs mean they can adapt to any situation.They are easily trained and are a very obedient breed. They are loyal companions that share the love you give to them. They are very friendly dogs and are great with children.

Labrador Retriever and child Labrador Retriever and child
Family dogs will wait patiently for the kids to come home to play in the garden

Kirill & Ens Lumens Affa and enslumens dogs Kirill & Ens Lumens Affa and enslumens dogs Kirill & Ens Lumens Affa and enslumens dogs
Kirill & Ens Lumens Affa and enslumens dogs

A probable remnant passed down by its Nordic ancestors, who needed to take in a lot of calories so they could safely enter the icy waters of the Atlantic, the Labrador's appetite is legendary. The tasks entrusted to guide dogs for the blind and assistance dogs for the disabled, and especially their sense of duty, mean they are not always able to expend the energy their enthusiastic temperament demands. A sedentary way of life combined with a natural fondness for food can so easily result in excess weight
Compared with other dogs of a similar weight, the Labrador's body mass consists of less muscle mass and more fat.

Labradors Ens Lumens Labradors Ens Lumens
Labradors Ens Lumens


Labrador life expectancy is generally 12 to 13 years, and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Common Lab health issues are:

  • Labs are somewhat prone to hip dysplasia , especially the larger dogs, though not as much as some other breeds. Hip scores are recommended before breeding.
  • Labs are sometimes prone to ear infection, because their floppy ears trap warm moist air. This is easy to control, but needs regular checking to ensure that a problem is not building up unseen. A healthy Lab ear should look clean and light pink (almost white) inside. Darker pink (or inflamed red), or brownish deposits, are a symptom of ear infection. The usual treatment is regular cleaning daily or twice daily (being careful not to force dirt into the sensitive inner ear) and sometimes medication (ear drops) for major cases. As a preventative measure, some owners clip the hair carefully around the ear and under the flap, to encourage better air flow.
  • Labs are often overfed and are allowed to become overweight, due to their blatant enjoyment of treats, hearty appetites, and endearing behavior towards people. A healthy Lab should keep a very slight hourglass waist and be fit and lithe, rather than fat or heavy-set. Excessive weight is strongly implicated as a risk factor in the later development of hip dysplasia and diabetes , and also can contribute to general reduced health when older. Arthritis is commonplace in older, overweight labs.
  • A Labrador that undertakes significant swimming without building up can develop a swelling or apparent kink known as swimtail. This can be easily treated by a veterinary clinic and tail rest.
  • Many times Labs also suffer from the risk of knee problems. A luxating patella is a common occurrence in the knee where the leg is often bow shaped.

Labradors are energetic, outgoing dogs. Their coats are short and smooth, and can be black, yellow, or brown (called "chocolate") in color, in that order of frequency. Puppies of all colors can potentially occur in the same litter . The color is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all. A dog with the recessive e allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus. Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's coloration, which in yellow labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Yellow labs can have black or pink noses; chocolate and black labs's noses match the coat color. A very light color sometimes called 'silver' is not officially recognized, but is sought by some owners and therefore unusually light colored yellow and chocolate labs may be described this way by unscrupulous breeders.

As with some other breeds, the English and the American lines differ slightly. Labs are bred in England as a medium size dog, shorter and stockier with fuller faces than their American counterparts which are bred as a larger dog. No distinction is made by the AKC, but the two classifications come from different breeding. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.

Donna Crawshaw "Mixed Company" Labrador Terrier Cockere
Donna Crawshaw "Mixed Company" Labrador Terrier Cockere

labrador retriever puppy black attack by Brett Longley

Moscow, Russia.

ENSLUMENS: Website of the ENS LUMENS Kennel, our source for information about favorite breed, the Labrador Retriever, some of the story of the Ens Lumens Kennel, FCI since 1998, new puppies of Ens Lumens, stud dogs, dog-shows results, black, yellow, chocolate puppies of labradors for dog-show, for hunting, stud dogs. Import. Breed labrador retriever, breeding puppies, labrador, retriever, dog of kings- presidents, black-chocolate-yellow puppies of labradors, dog-show, hunting, stud dogs.

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